The coronavirus pandemic has led to record-high unemployment rates not seen since the Great Depression. And this is particularly worrisome for would-be home buyers.
If you were among the 23.1 million Americans who were laid off or furloughed, you might be worried about your financial future. And if you were hoping to buy a house—either now or in the next few years—you might also wonder how your current jobless status might affect those plans.
While the situation might seem dire, unemployment does not mean that home-buying plans have to be put on hold for long. Here's how to navigate a period of unemployment so that it doesn't derail your hopes to buy a home.
Can you buy a home if you're unemployed?
For starters: If you lose your job while in the midst of home shopping or after you've even made an offer, you might have to put the purchase on hold.
The reason: Given your reduced income, the odds of lenders loaning you money for a property purchase are slim, unless your spouse or partner has a sizable income that can carry the mortgage alone.
And even if you're getting unemployment checks every week, that money is considered temporary income, so it can’t be used to qualify for a mortgage, says Jackie Boies, senior director of housing and bankruptcy services at Money Management International, a nonprofit providing financial education and counseling. In short, “unemployment could have an effect on your ability to purchase a home in the short term,” Boies says.
But the good news is that once you find a new job, you can likely resume home shopping without trouble, Boies adds. “Unemployment shouldn't have a long-term effect on being able to buy a home."
How long after unemployment can you buy a home?
But even once you do find a new job, that doesn't mean you can easily buy a house just yet. That's because lenders like to see a steady history of employment before loaning someone money.
"Regular employment must be reestablished as stable, reliable, and dependable,” says Karma Herzfeld, mortgage loan originator at Motto Mortgage Alliance in Little Rock, AR.
So how long is enough? Lenders typically require borrowers to have six months of employment at their current job, and two years of continuous employment. Breaks in employment older than two years shouldn’t affect getting a mortgage.
How unemployment affects your credit score
While unemployment doesn't jeopardize future home-buying hopes per se, financial experts warn that what can put those plans at risk is how you handle your finances while jobless. Unemployment, after all, can stress your budget in ways that can damage your credit history and credit score.
Lenders check your credit score to assess how well you've managed past debts. Scores between 650 and 700 range from fair to good; scores below 650 are considered subpar, which could limit which lenders are willing to loan you money for a house.
Credit scores can be damaged in a variety of ways during unemployment. For one, if you get behind on paying bills, this will put some blemishes on your credit history and drag your score down.
Unemployment can also lower your credit score by negatively affecting your debt-to-income ratio, a calculation used by mortgage lenders to compare how much you make against how much you owe.
If you're unemployed, you may face a double whammy as your income is lower and you're charging more to your credit cards, thus increasing your debt. Both moves can negatively affect your debt-to-income ratio, which may make lenders leery of loaning you money.
“Any factor that affects income or debt may affect the debt-to-income ratio,” Herzfeld explains.
In sum, hopeful home buyers should be careful not to take on too much debt, even while unemployed. You need to preserve cash as best you can.
“I recommend, if on unemployment, [you] cut back on all discretionary spending and make every effort to keep bills current so that the credit score may not get negatively impacted,” Herzfeld says.
Debt-to-income ratio will likely rebalance once you return to work, as long as you haven’t racked up too much debt during the period of unemployment, Boies says.
How to handle your finances while unemployed
“My recommendation is to always try as best as you can to pay at least the minimum required payment on all monthly debt obligations, otherwise credit may be negatively affected,” Herzfeld says.
Boies suggests reaching out to landlords, credit card companies, utilities, auto lenders, and others to find out what options you have, such as payment plans, deferments, or forbearance. You might also be able to reduce some bills, such as insurance, by reviewing your policy.
“Don’t think that if you can’t pay that bill, you just can't do anything about it,” Boies says. “You need to reach out to see what options they have available to you.”
How to bounce back from unemployment
If your credit score is negatively affected while you’re unemployed, it’s not the end of the world—but it will take time to repair.
Six months to a year or more of positive credit rebuilding could get you on track to buy a home, Herzfeld says. “The sooner past-due debts can be remedied, the sooner the score may begin to improve,” she says.